Climate Change in England, Phenology
(New studies from the English Channel coast reveal dramatic shifts in ocean and tide pool animals that
match increases in ocean and air temperature. Please go to the
Pushing the Boundaries of Life: England
England's long history of nature observation makes it
a center of phenology, the study of when natural events such as flower
blooming and bird nesting occur. There and all across Europe, detailed
records show rising average temperatures are affecting natural processes.
David Walker of the Dungeness Bird Observatory holds a chiffchaff Phylloscopus
collybita, a warbler whose yearly migration and nesting are much earlier
now than in the mid-20th century.
Ornithologist Andrew Gosler of Oxford University records
the date of egg laying of great tits Parus major, in Wytham Wood.
Monitoring 900 nestboxes since the 1960s, this project, run by the Edward
Grey Institute of Field Ornithology, has documented a three week advance
in date of first laying, which is "entirely consistent with the weather."
British Trust for Ornithology records confirm similar advances for many
One of the most dramatic changes to the British countryside
is the earlier budding of the famous English oaks, Quercus robur.
These trees are monitored on a canopy walkway at Wytham Environmental
Change Network. Across Europe, 30 years of records from botanical gardens
show that the growing season is almost 11 days longer due to earlier spring
and later fall events.
"Sez who?": References 4
Each of the foregoing photos reports on documented science, peer-reviewed published studies and scientific literature surveys. Those references are listed later in this Web site, along with climate change data, World View of Global Warming project advisors, and links to some sources of climate information.
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